You might have an idea why vitamin D could be considered “Best Winter Biohack”. I define biohack as the single most important health intervention, with the most tremendous benefits, that can be easily implemented at any one time.

Optimising our Vitamin D status during the cold months is definitely one hell of a biohack: vitamin D is required for the performance of almost every cell type in our body (neurons, cardiac cells, immune system cells, muscle cells etc) and low blood levels of this nutrient can result in anything from depression, anxiety, low energy, decreased immunity, disturbed sleep, to weak, brittle bones & poor muscle function, as well as paving the way to a host of chronic illnesses since vitamin D modulates the behaviour of over 3,000 genes in our body and is key for the stability of our entire genome.

If you want to perform at your best, you need to check your vitamin D status and make sure you’re always in the sweet range of optimum serum vitamin D levels. Which is what this article is all about so please read on.


How’s your D status?

Let’s see: your vitamin D status depends primarily on the production of vitamin D3 in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UV-B). Apart from sunshine exposure, other factors that play a role are: skin-covering clothes, the use of sun block, skin pigmentation, the amount of cholesterol in the skin, ozone depletion, urban pollution, and most importantly, latitude.

Let’s take Berlin as an example: it’s winter, we’re being deprived of sunshine for months on end and even if we had sunny days, we still wouldn’t be able to synthesise any vitamin D in our skin due to the latitude we live in. According to this Harvard source, if you live north of the line connecting San Francisco (37.7749° N) to Philadelphia (39.9526° N) and Athens (37.9838° N) to Beijing (40.2374° N), odds are that you don’t get enough vitamin D. Berlin is at 52.5200° N and London at 51.5074° N. This means no sun-derived Vitamin D production until April at least. Many studies show that several life-threatening chronic conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes mellitus increase with increasing latitude, hence the importance of checking your vitamin D status regularly.

No matter where you live though, study after study show that vitamin D deficiency is a global phenomenon. Worldwide, an estimated 1 billion people have inadequate levels of vitamin D in their blood, and deficiencies can be found in all ethnicities and age groups. This article published in JAMA tested an urban sample of healthy young adults in the US for vitamin D status and the majority were found to be severely deficient.

The UK doesn’t fare much better. This study  concluded that ” the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the general UK population was alarmingly high during the winter and spring, which warrants action at a population level rather than at a risk group level”.

As to how vitamin D-optimised we are in Germany,  this study done at University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf detected vitamin D deficiency–associated bone mineralization defects in a cohort of 675 healthy German adults (“healthy” in this context means they didn’t have a clue they had a problem). This study showed that vitamin D deficiency is a major public health issue in Germany due to the fact that:

  • overall solar exposure is not sufficient to synthesise 25(OH)D from 7-dehydrocholesterol in Germany
  • even in summer, there is insufficient solar exposure in Germany to synthesis enough 25(OH)D in the skin
  • Germany, unlike the situation in the US, UK & the Scandinavian countries, it is largely prohibited to fortify food with vitamin D


The Risks of Developing a Vitamin D Deficiency 

Vitamin D’s role in the body cannot be overemphasised and research conducted over the past decade suggests that this essential nutrient actually plays a much broader disease-fighting role than once thought.

Before we proceed, a small clarification: there are two forms of vitamin D, D3 (or cholecalciferol, the sun-derived form also found in oily fish) and D2 (or ergocalciferol, the plant-derived, weaker form). For many reasons that this article explains in detail, you want D3, not D2, especially when it comes to supplementation. Also, whenever I mention vitamin D throughout this article, I’m basically referring to D3.

To give you just a quick lowdown on its many health implications: vitamin D is more of a hormone than a regular vitamin and it determines the behaviour of an astounding number of genes in the human body, modulating gene transcription factors which result in either the induction or repression of specific messenger RNAs (Source). Judging by the fact that there are D3 receptors almost everywhere in the body (in diverse tissues such as brain, pancreas, pituitary, skin, muscle, placenta, immune cells and parathyroid), we can safely conclude that a vitamin D deficiency could be implicated in just about any disease.

More to the point, here’s a list of conditions associated with low vitamin D status in observational studies,  according to this literature review published in BMJ (2016;355:i6201):

  • Cardiovascular—Myocardial infarction, ischaemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, venous thromboembolism
  • Gastrointestinal—Inflammatory bowel disease, chronic pancreatitis
  • Infection—Infections, sepsis, hepatitis C
  • Metabolic—Type 1 and type 2 diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidaemia
  • Mortality—All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cancer mortality
  • Musculoskeletal—All fractures, hip fractures, falls, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, muscle strength, physical performance
  • Neurological—Multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, cognitive decline, Parkinson’s disease, mood disorders and depression
  • Pregnancy related—Gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia
  • Respiratory—Respiratory infections, tuberculosis, lung function, asthma, bronchiectasis
  • Cancer—Breast cancer, colorectal cancer

At the same time, clinical research shows that optimising Vitamin D levels is a possible preventive factor for a wide array of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, various cancers, type 2 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and the seasonal flu. And of course, it can prevent bone demineralisation that leads to osteoporosis (which can occur in young adults as well, osteoporosis is not a disease of old age as you might think!).

benefits of vit D

As an aside, almost any deficiency of any of the micronutrients (folic acid, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, niacin, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, iron, or zinc) is bad news in that it damages DNA by causing single- and double-strand breaks, oxidative lesions, or both (for more info, this article highlights the connection between micronutrient deficiencies and cancer).

But back to vitamin D…To sum it all up, vitamin D is critical for the health of your brain, heart, immune system and the stability of your genome as this article points out. Now to the question that’s probably on your mind right now…

Are You Vitamin D Deficient?

If you live in Berlin or anywhere at a high latitude, there is a very high probability that you are.But I wouldn’t advise you to start taking supplements randomly, without knowing the right dose for you or how long you need to supplement for in order to optimise your D levels.

My recommendation is that you do a test for serum vitamin D status first. And you don’t even have to run to the doctor: home tests using capillary blood instead of venous blood are accurate, easy to use and good value for money.  At the moment I’m negotiating with various test providers and supplement companies to get everyone at Factory Berlin a handsome discount. If you’re not part of this community, I’m still able to help so do get in touch.

Vitamin D Supplementation – How much?

For some time there was quite a bit of scientific debate as to how much vitamin D people need each day and this 300- page Health Report for the UK Gov gives you the rationale behind general recommendations.

Suffice it to say that in 2010 The Institute of Medicine recommended tripling the daily vitamin D intake for children and adults in the U.S. and Canada to 600 IU per day.  The report also recognised the safety of vitamin D by increasing the upper limit from 2,000 to 4,000 IU per day and acknowledged that even at 4,000 IU per day, there was no good evidence of harm.

Still, according to functional medicine practitioners who are concerned with optimal health, even the new guidelines are overly conservative about the ideal intake as they don’t give enough weight to some of the latest science on vitamin D and health. For optimum health and chronic disease prevention, most people probably need more vitamin D than what the official guidelines recommend.

Dr. Heaney, who has been doing vitamin D research for over 40 years, explains the difference between conventional requirements (RDI – Recommended Daily Intake) and optimal levels of nutrients: “These requirements are the least you can get by on without overtly developing a disease. But if you take an approach based on physiology, you end up with different numbers”.

He also states: “Every minute of every day, our cellular machinery is constantly renewing itself […] but without vitamin D, the cell cannot access the information in its own DNA library […] because part of the apparatus that opens up the genome is the active form of vitamin D”. Click here for an interview with Dr Heaney for more info.

Also, when taking a vitamin D supplement,  it is important to boost your intake of vitamin K2 through diet or a supplement.

What Is Your Optimal Vitamin D Status?

We all vary in our needs for vitamin D and one answer as to how much we personally need is in our genes.

Research shows that variations in the CYP2R1 and GC genes can affect your risk for low circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D. This is by the way the form of vitamin D that serum Vitamin D tests measure.

How does this genetic influence happen? In short, the CYP2R1 encodes for an enzyme that activates vitamin D from its pre-formed type and turns it into a metabolically active compound. A certain variant of this gene does a much poorer job and has been associated with an increased risk of low circulating levels of vitamin D. In other words, two people with the same sun exposure and dietary intake of vitamin D will have different levels of circulating vitamin D in their blood, depending on which gene variant they possess.

The GC gene on the other hand encodes the vitamin D-binding protein, a molecule that binds vitamin D and transports it to tissues. Similarly, a variant of this gene has been associated with an increased risk of low circulating levels of vitamin D.

This genetic information comes as part of your Nutrigenomix Test, and when combined with the results of your serum vitamin D test, will give you the most personalised recommendation as far as this vital nutrient is concerned.




Why You Should Do a Serum Vitamin D  Test First

Because it’s always better to know where you stand health-wise, rather than guess. We live in the 21st century and we have amazing medical technology at our disposal, why not take advantage of it?

Another reason to do a test first concerns your finances. While the medical evidence says you don’t need to worry about vitamin D toxicity at supplementation levels below 30,000 (IU) a day, it is important to test your Vitamin D levels in order to make sure you’re only supplementing the right amount and not wasting your money on unnecessary supplements.

This research study indicates that the optimum range of Vitamin D,  for both health maintenance and prevention of disease, is between 60-80ng/ml. Thus if your test indicates a value in this range you don’t need to supplement at all.

If your vitamin D value is lower than the optimum range, the exact value shown by the test will determine your personal vitamin D intake necessary to reach the desired range.

Dr Mercola mentions research by GrassrootsHealth with the suggestion that adults need about 8,000 IUs per day to achieve a serum level of 40 ng/ml and refers to these ranges for diagnosing deficiency and excess.


So how do we calculate exactly how much you need based on your vitamin D test? It’s easy: we know that the lower your starting value is, the more vitamin D will be absorbed from the intestines. The same study shows that, at a starting value of 10ng/ml, the mean increment that would be expected to be produced by an additional 1,000IU/d is 11ng/ml, whereas at 30 ng/ml it is 8ng/ml, and at 50ng/ml, it is only 5ng/ml.

Therefore we can calculate with precision the exact level of supplementation you need. This is how personalised nutrition works: instead of supplementing at random with nutrients that are “good for you” based on general recommendations, we can find out exactly the right amount for you, saving you money and also providing more certainty: you will now know for sure if vitamin D deficiency is one of the reasons you’re not feeling that great or if you need to look elsewhere for what might be wrong.

The best current test for vitamin D status is serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D.  A 25-hydroxyvitamin D level <25 nmol/L is classified as vitamin D deficiency. Classifications of vitamin D sufficiency vary, ranging from ≥50 nmol/L to ≥80 nmol/L.

The Antioxidant Club Runs OPTIMISED – A New Health Awareness Campaign 

As a registered nutritional therapist, I can offer you both genetic testing and serum vitamin D tests at best prices.

If you’d like to take advantage of this Health Initiative and get personalised health advice about your vitamin D requirement as well as benefit from discounts on tests and supplements, do get in touch by email at

Vit D sunshine

And check out this useful VITAMIN D TRACKING APP: it tells you how many units of vitamin D you’re making and when to get out of the sun to avoid burning. Don’t forget UVA blocks vitamin D production in the skin so it’s not smart to stay in the sun for too long. If you live in Berlin, don’t hold your breath, no vitamin D production in the skin until April!!


More Facts about Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) 

  • a lipid soluble vitamin that acts as a hormone (it is a steroid hormone precursor)
  • synthesised when skin is exposed to ultraviolet B radiation
  • dietary sources are limited and include oily fish, egg yolk, red meat, liver
  • it stimulates intestinal calcium absorption and is important in maintaining adequate phosphate levels for bone mineralization, bone growth, and remodelling
  • it is involved in the regulation of cell growth proliferation and apoptosis (programmed cell death)
  • it is involved in the modulation of the immune system and other functions
  • in adults, severe vitamin D deficiency can cause osteomalacia: a syndrome of impaired bone mineralisation, bone fragility, and proximal myopathy

More about Individual Variation in Our Vitamin D Requirements 

This article in The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology talks about the concept of the personal vitamin D response index which describes the efficiency of the molecular response to supplementation with vitamin D.

The concept is based on the fact that vitamin D3activates (via its metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) the transcription factor vitamin D receptor and thus has a direct effect on the epigenome and transcriptome of many human tissues and cell types (epigenome & transcriptome basically refer to the regulation of genetic expression based on external factors, such as vitamin D in this case).

Thus, individuals can be distinguished into high, mid and low responders to vitamin D via measuring vitamin D sensitive molecular parameters, such as changes in the epigenetic status and the respective transcription of genes of mobile immune cells from blood or the level of proteins or metabolites in serum.

Darker Skin Pigmentation – Are You More at Risk? 

Recent research indicates that skin pigmentation does not appear to negatively affect vitamin D status: while racial pigmentation has a photoprotective effect, it does not prevent the generation of normal levels of active vitamin D metabolites. Persons with dark skin also compensate for low 25(OH)D by rapidly converting it to the active 1,25(OH)2D metabolite, thus allowing them to maintain adequate vitamin D status.

Light Therapy for SAD?

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) describes a subtype of major depression which has a seasonal pattern (usually winter depression and remission or hypomania during spring and summer). It includes atypical symptoms such as hypersomnia, carbohydrate craving and weight gain.

This clinical review about SAD mentions 20 randomised controlled trials that compared light therapy (ranging from 176 lux to 15 000 lux daily) with waiting list control management, “attentional” control (eg, sham light box), or active treatment controls (eg, cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT], fluoxetine). Light therapy showed superior effectiveness, however this was questioned as being “more than a placebo effect”. What is more worrying is the list of unwanted effects of light therapy: eye strain or visual disturbances (in 19-27% of patients), headache (13-21%), agitation (6-13%), nausea (7%), sweating (7%) and sedation (6-7%).

Cities, Latitudes and Your Risk of Vitamin D deficiency

As an idea, the rule of thumb goes: if you live north of the line connecting San Francisco to Philadelphia and Athens to Beijing (above 40° N), odds are that you don’t get enough vitamin D, according to this Harvard source.

However, living below 40° N doesn’t guarantee your vitamin D status is optimal, either due to lifestyle factors (such as 9-5 office-based jobs or indoor living) or due to poor overall health. The latest thinking on the pandemic of low 25(OH)D is that this is a consequence of chronic disease processes, provoked by persistent intracellular infection and chronic systemic inflammation, rather than the cause. Either way, having low vitamin D levels is bad news,  and you would be wise to have yours checked.

Here’s a list of cities above 40° N:

52°31′N 13°23′E Berlin  Berlin  Germany
52°29′N 1°54′W Birmingham  England  United Kingdom
52°26′N 30°59′E Gomel Gomel Voblast  Belarus
52°24′N 1°31′W Coventry  England  United Kingdom
52°24′N 16°55′E Poznań Greater Poland  Poland
52°23′N 4°38′E Haarlem  North Holland  Netherlands
52°22′N 4°54′E Amsterdam  North Holland  Netherlands
52°22′N 9°43′E Hannover  Lower Saxony  Germany
52°19′N 104°18′E Irkutsk Irkutsk Oblast  Russia
52°14′N 21°01′E Warsaw Masovian Voivodship  Poland
52°13′N 6°54′E Enschede  Overijssel  Netherlands
52°12′N 0°07′E Cambridge  England  United Kingdom
52°10′N 4°29′E Leiden  South Holland  Netherlands
52°08′N 106°41′W Saskatoon  Saskatchewan  Canada
52°06′N 5°07′E Utrecht  Utrecht  Netherlands
52°05′N 4°19′E The Hague  South Holland  Netherlands
51°57′N 7°37′E Münster  North Rhine-Westphalia  Germany
51°56′N 4°29′E Rotterdam  South Holland  Netherlands
51°54′N 8°28′W Cork  Munster  Ireland
51°53′N 176°39′W Adak  Alaska  United States
51°52′N 2°14′W Gloucester  England  United Kingdom
51°45′N 1°15′W Oxford  England  United Kingdom
51°40′N 39°13′E Voronezh Voronezh Oblast  Russia
51°37′N 3°57′W Swansea  Wales  United Kingdom
51°32′N 46°01′E Saratov Saratov Oblast  Russia
51°31′N 7°28′E Dortmund  North Rhine-Westphalia  Germany
51°30′N 0°08′W London  England  United Kingdom


51°29′N 3°11′W Cardiff  Wales  United Kingdom
51°29′N 0°00′E/W Greenwich  England  United Kingdom
51°27′N 2°35′W Bristol  England  United Kingdom
51°23′N 2°22′W Bath  England  United Kingdom
51°20′N 12°23′E Leipzig  Saxony  Germany
51°14′N 6°47′E Düsseldorf  North Rhine-Westphalia  Germany
51°13′N 4°24′E Antwerp  Flanders  Belgium
51°10′N 71°26′E Astana N/A  Kazakhstan
51°06′N 1°30′E Winchester  England  United Kingdom
51°03′N 114°04′W Calgary  Alberta  Canada
51°03′N 3°44′E Ghent  Flanders  Belgium
51°02′N 13°44′E Dresden  Saxony  Germany
50°59′N 11°02′E Erfurt  Thuringia  Germany
50°57′N 1°51′E Calais N/A  France
50°56′N 6°58′E Cologne  North Rhine-Westphalia  Germany
50°54′N 1°24′W Southampton  England  United Kingdom
50°51′N 5°41′E Maastricht  Limburg (Netherlands)  Netherlands
50°51′N 4°21′E Brussels  Brussels  Belgium
50°50′N 0°09′W Brighton and Hove  England  United Kingdom
50°49′N 1°05′W Portsmouth  England  United Kingdom
50°43′N 3°32′W Exeter  England  United Kingdom
50°41′N 120°20′W Kamloops  British Columbia  Canada
50°38′N 3°03′E Lille  Hauts-de-France  France
50°27′N 104°36′W Regina  Saskatchewan  Canada
50°27′N 30°31′E Kiev  Kiev Oblast  Ukraine
50°24′N 4°26′E Charleroi N/A  Belgium
50°22′N 4°09′W Plymouth  England  United Kingdom
50°07′N 8°41′E Frankfurt am Main  Hesse  Germany
50°05′N 14°25′E Prague N/A  Czech Republic
50°04′N 19°56′E Kraków Lesser Poland  Poland
50°00′N 36°14′E Kharkiv  Kharkiv Oblast  Ukraine

50° North

Latitude Longitude City Province/State Country
49°54′N 97°08′W Winnipeg  Manitoba  Canada
49°53′N 119°30′W Kelowna  British Columbia  Canada
49°51′N 24°01′E Lviv  Lviv Oblast  Ukraine
49°37′N 6°07′E Luxembourg N/A  Luxembourg
49°29′N 0°06′E Le Havre  Normandy  France
49°27′N 11°05′E Nuremberg  Bavaria  Germany
49°26′N 1°06′E Rouen  Normandy  France
49°15′N 123°06′W Vancouver  British Columbia  Canada
48°51′N 2°21′E Paris  Île-de-France  France
48°47′N 9°11′E Stuttgart  Baden-Württemberg  Germany
48°45′N 122°29′W Bellingham  Washington  United States
48°42′N 44°31′E Volgograd Volgograd Oblast  Russia
48°35′N 7°45′E Strasbourg  Grand Est  France
48°24′N 34°59′E Dnipropetrovsk N/A  Ukraine
48°26′N 123°22′W Victoria  British Columbia  Canada
48°25′N 71°04′W Saguenay  Quebec  Canada
48°23′N 4°29′W Brest  Brittany  France
48°23′N 89°15′W Thunder Bay  Ontario  Canada
48°18′N 14°17′E Linz  Upper Austria  Austria
48°13′N 16°22′E Vienna  Vienna  Austria
48°09′N 17°07′E Bratislava N/A  Slovakia
48°08′N 11°34′E Munich  Bavaria  Germany
48°00′N 37°48′E Donetsk  Donetsk Oblast  Ukraine
47°55′N 106°55′E Ulan Bator N/A  Mongolia
47°54′N 1°55′E Orléans N/A  France
47°48′N 13°02′E Salzburg  Salzburg  Austria
47°37′N 122°20′W Seattle  Washington  United States
47°34′N 52°42′W St. John’s  Newfoundland and Labrador  Canada
47°34′N 7°36′E Basel N/A   Switzerland
47°28′N 19°03′E Budapest N/A  Hungary
47°26′N 123°27′E Qiqihar Heilongjiang  People’s Republic of China
47°22′N 8°33′E Zürich N/A   Switzerland
47°16′N 11°23′E Innsbruck  Tyrol  Austria
47°14′N 39°42′E Rostov-on-Don Rostov Oblast  Russia
47°13′N 1°33′W Nantes  Pays de la Loire  France
47°08′N 9°31′E Vaduz N/A  Liechtenstein
47°07′N 51°53′E Atyrau Atyrau Region  Kazakhstan
47°04′N 15°26′E Graz  Styria  Austria
47°00′N 28°55′E Chişinău N/A  Moldova
46°57′N 7°27′E Bern N/A   Switzerland
46°51′N 29°38′E Tiraspol  Transnistria  Moldova
46°49′N 71°13′W Quebec City  Quebec  Canada
46°49′N 100°47′W Bismarck   North Dakota  United States
46°48′N 92°06′W Duluth  Minnesota  United States
46°47′N 56°11′W Saint-Pierre Saint Pierre and Miquelon  France
46°46′N 23°35′E Cluj-Napoca Cluj County  Romania
46°44′N 117°00′W Moscow  Idaho  United States
46°36′N 112°02′W Helena  Montana  United States
46°32′N 84°21′W Sault Ste. Marie  Ontario  Canada
46°31′N 6°38′E Lausanne Vaud   Switzerland
46°29′N 81°01′W Sudbury  Ontario  Canada
46°28′N 30°44′E Odessa  Odessa Oblast  Ukraine
46°18′N 79°27′W North Bay  Ontario  Canada
46°14′N 63°09′W Charlottetown  Prince Edward Island  Canada
46°12′N 6°09′E Geneva N/A   Switzerland
46°08′N 64°46′W Moncton  New Brunswick  Canada
46°03′N 14°31′E Ljubljana N/A  Slovenia
45°57′N 66°40′W Fredericton  New Brunswick  Canada
45°49′N 15°59′E Zagreb N/A  Croatia
45°46′N 4°51′E Lyon  Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes  France
45°45′N 126°38′E Harbin Heilongjiang  People’s Republic of China
45°36′N 62°39′W New Glasgow  Nova Scotia  Canada
45°31′N 122°41′W Portland  Oregon  United States
45°30′N 73°34′W Montreal  Quebec  Canada
45°28′N 9°11′E Milan  Lombardy  Italy
45°26′N 12°20′E Venice  Veneto  Italy
45°25′N 75°41′W Ottawa  Ontario  Canada
45°25′N 141°40′E Wakkanai Hokkaido  Japan
45°17′N 66°05′W Saint John  New Brunswick  Canada
45°15′N 19°51′E Novi Sad  Vojvodina  Serbia
45°04′N 7°42′E Turin  Piedmont  Italy
45°02′N 38°58′E Krasnodar Krasnodar Krai  Russia
44°59′N 93°16′W Minneapolis  Minnesota  United States
44°57′N 34°06′E Simferopol  Crimea  Ukraine/ Russia (disputed)
44°51′N 63°12′W Halifax  Nova Scotia  Canada
44°50′N 0°35′W Bordeaux Nouvelle-Aquitaine  France
44°49′N 20°28′E Belgrade N/A  Serbia
44°45′N 19°42′E Šabac N/A  Serbia
44°30′N 11°21′E Bologna  Emilia-Romagna  Italy
44°26′N 26°06′E Bucharest N/A  Romania
44°25′N 12°12′E Ravenna  Emilia-Romagna  Italy
44°24′N 8°55′E Genoa  Liguria  Italy
44°22′N 100°20′W Pierre  South Dakota  United States
44°20′N 23°49′E Craiova N/A  Romania
44°19′N 69°47′W Augusta  Maine  United States
44°15′N 72°34′W Montpelier  Vermont  United States
43°55′N 69°49′W Bath  Maine  United States
43°56′N 12°27′E San Marino N/A  San Marino
43°54′N 125°12′E Changchun Jilin  People’s Republic of China
43°51′N 18°21′E Sarajevo N/A  Bosnia and Herzegovina
43°50′N 66°07′W Yarmouth  Nova Scotia  Canada
43°50′N 87°36′E Ürümqi Xinjiang  People’s Republic of China
43°47′N 11°15′E Florence  Tuscany  Italy
43°46′N 142°22′E Asahikawa Hokkaido  Japan
43°44′N 7°25′E Monaco N/A  Monaco
43°42′N 7°16′E Nice  Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur  France
43°42′N 79°24′W Toronto  Ontario  Canada
43°37′N 116°12′W Boise  Idaho  United States
43°36′N 1°27′E Toulouse Occitanie  France
43°35′N 39°43′E Sochi Krasnodar Krai  Russia
43°33′N 7°01′E Cannes  Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur  France
43°32′N 5°39′W Gijón  Principado de Asturias  Spain
43°32′N 96°43′W Sioux Falls  South Dakota  United States
43°30′N 16°26′E Split N/A  Croatia
43°20′N 145°35′E Nemuro Hokkaido  Japan
43°19′N 2°00′W San Sebastián  Basque Country  Spain
43°18′N 5°22′E Marseille  Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur  France
43°17′N 76°54′E Almaty N/A  Kazakhstan
43°15′N 2°55′W Bilbao  Basque Country  Spain
43°12′N 71°32′W Concord  New Hampshire  United States
43°10′N 77°37′W Rochester  New York  United States
43°08′N 131°54′E Vladivostok Primorsky Krai  Russia
43°04′N 141°21′E Sapporo Hokkaido  Japan
43°03′N 87°57′W Milwaukee  Wisconsin  United States
43°00′N 41°01′E Sukhumi  Abkhazia  Georgia
42°59′N 144°23′E Kushiro Hokkaido  Japan
42°56′N 10°46′E Follonica  Tuscany  Italy
42°55′N 143°12′E Obihiro Hokkaido  Japan
42°54′N 78°51′W Buffalo  New York  United States
42°53′N 8°32′W Santiago de Compostela  Galicia  Spain
42°52′N 74°37′E Bishkek N/A  Kyrgyzstan
42°51′N 2°41′W Vitoria-Gasteiz  Basque Country  Spain
42°42′N 23°20′E Sofia N/A  Bulgaria
42°40′N 21°10′E Pristina  Kosovo  Serbia  Kosovo (disputed)
42°30′N 1°30′E Andorra la Vella N/A  Andorra
42°28′N 59°36′E Nukus  Karakalpakstan  Uzbekistan
42°26′N 19°16′E Podgorica N/A  Montenegro
42°21′N 71°04′W Boston  Massachusetts  United States
42°20′N 83°03′W Detroit  Michigan  United States
42°17′N 83°00′W Windsor  Ontario  Canada
42°14′N 8°43′W Vigo  Galicia  Spain
42°14′N 43°58′E Tskhinvali  South Ossetia  Georgia
42°02′N 13°25′E Avezzano  Abruzzo  Italy
42°00′N 21°26′E Skopje N/A  Macedonia
41°54′N 12°30′E Rome  Lazio  Italy
41°54′N 12°27′E Vatican City N/A   Vatican City
41°53′N 87°38′W Chicago  Illinois  United States
41°49′N 71°25′W Providence  Rhode Island  United States
41°48′N 123°24′E Shenyang Liaoning  People’s Republic of China
41°48′N 129°47′E Chongjin North Hamgyong  North Korea
41°46′N 72°40′W Hartford  Connecticut  United States
41°46′N 140°44′E Hakodate Hokkaido  Japan
41°43′N 44°47′E Tbilisi N/A  Georgia
41°40′N 4°43′W Valladolid  Castile and León  Spain
41°39′N 0°53′W Zaragoza  Aragon  Spain
41°35′N 93°37′W Des Moines  Iowa  United States
41°33′N 8°25′W Braga Braga District  Portugal
41°29′N 81°40′W Cleveland  Ohio  United States
41°23′N 2°11′E Barcelona  Catalonia  Spain
41°20′N 19°49′E Tirana N/A  Albania
41°16′N 69°13′E Tashkent N/A  Uzbekistan
41°10′N 8°37′W Porto N/A  Portugal
41°09′N 104°48′W Cheyenne  Wyoming  United States
41°07′N 16°52′E Bari  Apulia  Italy
41°05′N 85°08′W Fort Wayne  Indiana  United States
41°01′N 28°57′E Istanbul N/A  Turkey
41°00′N 39°44′E Trabzon N/A  Turkey
41°00′N 71°40′E Namangan N/A  Uzbekistan
40°51′N 14°16′E Naples  Campania  Italy
40°49′N 140°45′E Aomori Aomori  Japan
40°49′N 96°41′W Lincoln  Nebraska  United States
40°48′N 124°09′W Eureka  California  United States
40°45′N 111°53′W Salt Lake City  Utah  United States
40°43′N 74°04′W Jersey City  New Jersey  United States
40°40′N 73°56′W New York City  New York  United States
40°39′N 22°54′E Thessaloniki N/A  Greece
41°37′N 0°38′E Lleida  Catalonia  Spain
40°27′N 80°00′W Pittsburgh  Pennsylvania  United States
40°24′N 49°53′E Baku N/A  Azerbaijan
40°23′N 3°43′W Madrid  Madrid  Spain
40°13′N 74°46′W Trenton  New Jersey  United States
40°11′N 29°03′E Bursa N/A  Turkey
40°11′N 44°31′E Yerevan N/A  Armenia
40°01′N 105°17′W Boulder  Colorado  United States

40° North

Latitude Longitude City Province/State Country
39°59′N 82°59′W Columbus  Ohio  United States
39°56′N 32°52′E Ankara N/A  Turkey
39°57′N 75°10′W Philadelphia  Pennsylvania  United States
39°55′N 116°23′E Beijing N/A  People’s Republic of China